Information for Landowners

What Does Environmental Restoration Mean for My Land?

Has a stream, wetland or riparian buffer restoration opportunity been identified on your property? If so, Restoration Systems would like to give you a clear explanation of the opportunity and the process.

Environmental restoration, often called “mitigation,” restores streams and wetlands to their historical condition and location. Working hand in hand with the landowner, RS restores degraded streams and wetlands in a manner that will accomodate a landowner’s current and future land use. To accomplish the restoration and meet standards for environmental improvement, RS will fill ditches and canals to restore drained wetlands, re-contour and stabilize stream banks, and replant the area with native hardwood trees and natural grasses. We perform the work while ensuring your property remains profitable and productive.

Unlike most water quality programs and best management practices, RS compensates a landowner with a per-acre payment. The compensation is to allow RS to conduct the work and place a permanent conservation easement over the restored land. Given our work is permanent, the per-acre compensation typically exceeds the appraised value of the land. In addition to the per-acre compensation, RS will often install and improve farm infrastructure while completing our work. These improvements could include new fencing, cattle watering stations, improved farm roads, and new crossings over streams, to name just a few.


  • STEP 1

    At no cost to you, allow Restoration Systems to evaluate your land for mitigation by granting access to "walk the site." Restoration Systems’ team of experienced scientists will examine the property in careful detail, making sure it is a good candidate for restoration while allowing the remainder of the property to be used in the same manner that it was before.

  • STEP 2

    If RS believes the land has marketable mitigation potential, we will provide a standard restoration and protection contract. We ask that the landowner carefully review the contract with family and other owners of the property to understand exactly what the legal responsibilities are regarding the property if it is restored and protected for mitigation.

  • STEP 3

    If RS secures a buyer, we perform a detailed title search to assure the land is in no way encumbered in a manner that conflicts with permanent protection. If satisfied with the legal status of the property, we close on the contract and assume responsibility for the conservation easement.

  • STEP 4

    RS's scientists and contractors plan and design the restoration project to meet the unique conditions of the property. Several hundred hours are spent in the field and office engineering the restoration so that it will be sustainable, beneficial and compatible with existing and future land use. In most cases, this stage will take several months to complete.

  • STEP 5

    Upon receiving all necessary permits, RS will construct the restoration and plant the area with appropriate, native vegetation—often more than 600 trees per acre— which are then protected by the conservation easement.

  • STEP 6

    RS will monitor and maintain the restoration over a minimum seven-year period. The landowner has no direct role or responsibility for the project, although they must follow the terms of the conservation easement over the long term.

The Benefits

For the Landowner

  • No out-of-pocket costs
  • Compensation on a per-acre basis for working with RS
  • Improved farming/ranching infrastructure– fencing, farm roads, crossings
  • Livestock watering stations installed as needed
  • Decreased risk of disease or injury to livestock caused by eroded streams
  • Improved property values
  • Buffers provide excellent protection from future development
  • Own your own wildlife sanctuary with your private hunting and fishing rights protected

For the Environment

  • Improved water quality in your immediate area
  • Improved wildlife habitat
  • Stream bank stabilization
  • Erosion problems solved
  • Flood attenuation
  • Livestock waste eliminated from the watershed
  • Herbicide and pesticide runoff eliminated from the watershed
  • Opportunities for recreation, education and research

Landowner Satisfaction

Landowner satisfaction is just as important to Restoration Systems as restoring the wetland and stream itself. Our reputation is our most valuable asset and we aim to please. Our goal is to provide each landowner with a beautiful and ecologically valuable natural area, as well as a fair and reasonable price for the real estate.

If Restoration Systems has already been in touch with you regarding your property, please consider our offer carefully and contact our office with any questions you may have regarding the process. Please be sure to visit our Frequently Asked Questions page for an overview of what we do.


Below are some of our more Frequently Asked Questions. If you are unable to locate the answer to your question here, feel free to contact us.


  • Q: What does RS do?

    We sell “compensatory mitigation” for permitted impacts to the natural environment. Compensatory mitigation, as defined by federal regulations, is the “restoration, creation, enhancement, or in exceptional circumstances, preservation of wetlands and/or other aquatic resources for the purpose of compensating for unavoidable adverse impacts which remain after all appropriate and practicable avoidance and minimization has been achieved.”

  • Q: Thanks for the fancy legal definition. But what do you do?

    Sure. A typical mitigation project for wetlands might take the following form: Restoration Systems will locate a former natural wetland which has been ditched and drained for farming, purchase the right to restore and protect the land, plan its restoration to wetland status, implement the restoration, and protect it with a conservation easement.

    By implementing the “restoration,” we mean an on-the-ground physical effort to improve the ecology of the site which starts by using heavy construction equipment to reverse prior damage. We back-fill drainage canals, remove and breach levees that denied floodwaters to former wetlands, and restore more natural topography to the land by excavating swales and depressions. Finally, we will plant more than six hundred native trees of multiple species per acre and protect the tract, or tracts, from development or cutting with a conservation easement.

  • Q: What is a mitigation “credit”?

    A “credit” is a way of defining the improvement of the environment at one location, like described above, and its usefulness as compensation to damage done elsewhere. For example, in North Carolina, one credit is generally required to offset the loss of one acre of wetland to development. However, in order to produce a credit and satisfy the legal obligation to compensate the environment, a company like Restoration Systems will have to restore at least one acre of wetlands and preserve or enhance up to ten additional acres. In short, the cumulative work done to improve a tract of land or stream at one location is translated into credits, which offsets development taking place at another location.

  • Q: Where can credits be used?

    Good question. Credits, representing positive environmental accomplishments, are useful as offsets to environmental damage. These credits, released only in given regions defined by the government, are generally based on the regulated resource. For instance, the credits for water-related projects like stream and wetland restoration are generally recognized for use only within a given watershed. Watersheds come in several orders of magnitude (ranging from the Mississippi watershed to your local creek), but for these purposes, credits related to the federal and state agencies are generally settled on one or more 8-digit USGS “HUCs,” or Hydrologic Unit Codes. In most southern states these HUCs run from 250,000 to several million acres, or as several county-sized regions that share rainfall.

  • Q: Is mitigation required by law?

    Most definitely. Mitigation is required by Congress in the Clean Water and Endangered Species Acts, as well as demanded by a wide range of federal processes such as project relicensing and best management practices. State law increasingly demands mitigation and offsets to the environment, as well.

  • Q: When do credits become useful to Restoration Systems?

    Credits only become useful for mitigation after a public permitting process which determines that natural resources have been avoided and kept safe from harm to the maximum extent practicable and impact to the environment has been reasonably minimized.

  • Q: If Restoration Systems is holding on to mitigation credits, how are they released or used? Are these credits based on environmental or biological needs?

    Mitigation credits are released based on tangible achievements for the watershed evaluated by Restoration Systems. Typical activities that can result in the release of environmental credits are physical and legal land improvements such as filling draining ditches, removing levees and dams, re-contouring streams, and planting trees.

  • Q: How does Restoration Systems ensure that their projects will remain protected once they are finished?

    Permanent protection in the form of “conservation easements” prohibits future development or logging within the project boundaries. Restoration Systems also guarantees long-term monitoring. This ensures that the credits given to Restoration Systems for each project are backed up by hard science, as the scientific processes and monitoring for each site are reviewed by state and federal agencies for accuracy. Monitoring for each project continues for five years or more following the completion of the project.

  • Q: How does Restoration Systems guarantee their commitments?

    Restoration Systems further ensures the utility of each credit granted by providing renewable surety bonds to guarantee contract implementation and success. These bonds are generally maintained for five years or more.


Here are some helpful answers to questions regarding what a conservation easement on your land means and how it will benefit you as a landowner. The following information is provided by the North Carolina Division of Mitigation Services.

  • Q: What is a conservation easement?

    A conservation easement is a written agreement between a landowner and the State of North Carolina that protects water quality by maintaining or establishing natural vegetation in a streamside or wetland parcel or buffer. All conservation easements used for the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program (EEP) purposes are perpetual and will forever transfer with the land to maintain its integrity. The property under conservation easement cannot be used for commercial, residential or industrial development or cultivation, but instead will be kept in a natural state.

  • Q: Why would I want a conservation easement?

    Conveying a conservation easement on wetlands or streams may increase the value of the remainder of your land. Buyers will often pay more for homes near permanently protected open space. Conservation easements are also important for protecting environmental and historical values.

  • Q: Does a conservation easement apply to all of my property?

    No, the easement would only apply to the portion of land specifically identified and agreed upon between the landowner and Restoration Systems.

  • Q: What kind of land interests Restoration Systems?

    Restoration Systems is interested in property that could be restored to provide for the improvement of water quality. Restoration Systems wants sites that have a high probability of success based on hydrology, soils and vegetation. Priority is given to sites that need re-vegetation or erosion control. Restoration Systems is also interested in areas that have rare plants or animals, endangered aquatic species, or degraded streams.