How Many Trees Does It Take to Protect a Stream?

A strip of forest along a stream channel, also called a riparian forest buffer, has been proposed and used for decades as a best management practice to protect streams by filtering out contaminants from agriculture and other land uses before they can enter them. Their benefits are many, but one benefit has dominated social and political conversations, and that is their role in preventing contaminants from entering streams. A few years ago, Stroud Water Research Center proposed that riparian forest buffers also play another important role by improving the health of the stream and enabling it to provide more and better ecosystem services for both humans and wildlife — the processing of natural organic matter and pollutants, for example. Thus, a forest buffer provides a first line of defense (keeping sediment and nutrients out) as well as a secondary line of defense (keeping sediment and nutrients from moving downstream) for maintaining clean water in our streams and rivers.

Water Conservation: Florida Washed Out

With its many lakes, rivers, springs and wetlands, one would think Florida must be overflowing with freshwater — plenty for drinking, irrigation and enterprise. However, a coalition of three large regional water-management districts calculates that continuation of today’s practices will result in Central Florida running out of fresh water in 21 years., 2/20/14


Stream Mitigation Benefits to Private Landowners

Section 404 of the Clean Water Act authorizes the Secretary of the Army to issue permits for the discharge of dredged or fill material into streams, wetlands, and other waters. Applicants for Section 404 permits generally must mitigate for unavoidable impacts to streams and wetlands associated with their development. Stream mitigation may include such on-the-ground activities as preservation or restoration of vegetated riparian buffers; fencing of livestock from riparian buffers; stream bank stabilization activities; installation of in-stream habitat structures; and reshaping of streams to make them more stable and less likely to erode.

Marcellus drillers feel heat as EPA mulls expanded Clean Water Act oversight

Wetlands were early casualties of the Marcellus Shale boom. Beginning in 2007, oil and gas drillers in West Virginia built well pads, roads, compressor stations and pipelines through streams and wetlands at nearly 50 sites without Clean Water Act permits, according to a Greenwire review of U.S. EPA compliance orders for drilling in the state.


Credit: Annie Snider, E&E reporter, Greenwire

First of two stories on wetlands in Marcellus Shale states

JANE LEW, W.Va. — Wetlands were early casualties of the Marcellus Shale boom. Beginning in 2007, oil and gas drillers in West Virginia built well pads, roads, compressor stations and pipelines through streams and wetlands at nearly 50 sites without Clean Water Act permits, according to a Greenwire review of U.S. EPA compliance orders for drilling in the state. As the drilling spread, concerns about potential wetland violations were eclipsed by questions from regulators and the public about the drilling technique — hydraulic fracturing, or fracking — and its possible impact on drinking water quality and public health.

But wetland issues re-emerged in December when a Chesapeake Energy Corp. subsidiary agreed to pay nearly $10 million to settle a Clean Water Act violation linked to fracking operations. The tab includes a $3.2 million civil fine — one of the largest levied for damaging wetlands without permits. That big penalty, combined with several years of concerted educational efforts, has driven companies into a permitting process they should have been going through in the first place, regulators say. But now a pending regulatory change expected to extend protections for waters and wetlands stands to redraw the map for oil and gas activities in the region, according to industry staff, consultants and other stakeholders. The rule shift, they say, could alter the economics of gas drilling.


NC House Committee on Wetland and Stream Mitigation to meet Feb. 27


The House Committee on Wetland and Stream Mitigation (LRC)(2013) will meet at the following time:


February 27, 2014

9:00 AM

544 Legislative Office Bldg


Rep. David R. Lewis (Co-Chair) House Appointment
Rep. Chris Millis (Co-Chair) House Appointment
Legislative Members
Rep. Kelly M. Alexander, Jr. House Appointment
Rep. Becky Carney House Appointment
Rep. Rick Catlin House Appointment
Rep. Kelly E. Hastings House Appointment
Rep. Charles Jeter House Appointment
Rep. Chuck McGrady House Appointment
Rep. Garland E. Pierce House Appointment
Rep. Phil Shepard House Appointment
Rep. Paul Stam House Appointment
LRC Member
Rep. Tim Moore Ex Officio

Overbank Flooding Event, Pancho Mitigation Bank

Overbank sedimentation during flood events represents an important component of stream restoration success. In addition to its importance for floodplain development, overbank deposition of fine sediment frequently results in a significant reduction of the suspended sediment load transported through a river system to the catchment outlet.

For details on Restoration Systems’ Pancho Wetland, Stream and Nutrient Mitigation Bank in the Neuse River Basin (now in Monitoring Year 2), go to

Bass Mountain Stream and Nutrient Bank under construction

Five recent photos of construction on Bass Mountain Stream and Nutrient Bank.

Click on the link below for a map of the service area and a drone-taken video:

Drone’s Eye View

Photo was taken from approximately 500 vertical feet above ground level looking North Northwest upstream along the Cache La Poudre River (Colorado) and down on the 3-Bell conservation easement.





The bottom center of the photo clearly shows a healthy oxbow ecosystem dominated by sandbar willow and cottonwood galleries. Upstream are remnant oxbows which have been heavily degraded by human agricultural practices. Drone under control of Raymond Holz; still picture clipped from video.


Southern Environmental Law Center – North Carolina Activity Update

The Southern Environmental Law Center is using the power of the law to champion North Carolina’s environment — from clean energy and healthy air, to rivers and wetlands, to the protection of special places from the Smokies to the Outer Banks. SELC has offices in Chapel Hill and Asheville. SELC is focusing on several transportation projects, including the Monroe Bypass and the replacement Bonner Bridge as well as overall transportation financing reform, Cape Hatteras National Seashore wildlife protection, and the Titan American cement plant in the Cape Fear River basin.

For the latest information on SELC’s current efforts in North Carolina, go to

Construction Industry Compliance Assistance Center (CICA)

Thumbs up to one construction industry compliance advocacy group for what it is saying about mitigation banking!
+ + + It is a regulatory preference that the wetlands are kept undisturbed. Where avoidance is not practical, wetland substitution, or replacement, at another site often provides a sound solution for the need to preserve wetland habitats. Until the mid-1990s the developer had just two options:
1. Mitigate the impacted wetlands on-site. The developer could replace the lost wetlands on the same site but at a potential loss of expensive real estate value.
2. Mitigate the impacted wetlands off-site by purchasing another piece of property and construct compensatory wetlands. This option is usually prohibitive considering cost and the time requirements because developer must locate and purchase the land, secure the necessary permits and convert the property it into an acceptable wetland.

A relatively new concept called mitigation banking offers a new alternative that simplifies the process for the development community. Preserves, called mitigation banks, are large areas of constructed, restored, or preserved wetlands set aside for the express purpose of providing compensatory mitigation for impacts to habitat. A bank is authorized to sell the habitat values created on the preserve. These values, known as credits, are sold to landowners who need to substitute wetlands for those lost to development where avoidance or on-site mitigation is not feasible.
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For more on CICA, go to